Infertile Men Have Higher Prostate-specific Antigen Values than Fertile Individuals of Comparable Age

Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Walter Cazzaniga, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Edoardo Pozzi, Federico Belladelli, Nicolò Schifano, Luigi Candela, Massimo Alfano, Filippo Pederzoli, Costantino Abbate, Emanuele Montanari, Luca Valsecchi, Enrico Papaleo, Paola Viganò, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Infertile men are at greater risk for oncological and nononcological chronic disease than fertile individuals. Objective: To investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values in men presenting for primary couple's infertility compared with a cohort of fertile individuals, according to the recommendation of the European Association of Urology guidelines that a first PSA assessment should be done at 40–45 yr of age. Design, setting, and participants: This is a cross-sectional study. Data from 956 (90%) infertile men and 102 (9.6%) fertile participants were analysed. Circulating hormones, total PSA, and semen parameters were investigated in every man. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics, local polynomial smoothing, and linear regression models were used to test potential associations with PSA levels. Results and limitations: Overall, PSA >1 ng/ml was found in 318 (30%) men. Serum PSA was higher (p = 0.02), while serum testosterone (p < 0.01) was lower in infertile than in fertile men. In participants younger than 40 yr, 176 (27%) men had PSA >1 ng/ml; of them, a greater proportion were infertile (28% infertile vs 17% fertile, p = 0.03). At multivariable linear regression analysis, infertile status (coefficient 0.21; 95% confidence interval 0.02–0.39) was associated with higher PSA values, after adjusting for age and serum testosterone level. This was a single-centre study, raising the possibility of selection biases. Conclusions: Infertile men have higher PSA values than fertile individuals. Of all, almost one out of three primary infertile men younger than 40 yr has a first total PSA value of >1 ng/ml. Patient summary: In this study, we observed that (1) infertile men have higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values than fertile individuals and (2) a greater proportion of infertile men younger than 40 yr had total PSA >1 ng/ml at the first assessment. These data might be relevant to study the potential clinical impact of more rigorous screening in primary infertile men. Infertile men have higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values than fertile individuals. One out of three infertile men younger than 40 yr has a first total PSA value of >1 ng/ml. Serum PSA is related to worse semen quality in infertile men.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Urology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Infertility
  • Male infertility
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostate-specific antigen
  • Semen analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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