Inflammation and reactive oxygen species in status epilepticus: Biomarkers and implications for therapy

Gaetano Terrone, Federica Frigerio, Silvia Balosso, Teresa Ravizza, Annamaria Vezzani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Preclinical studies in immature and adult rodents and clinical observations show that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are rapid onset phenomena occurring in the brain during status epilepticus and persisting thereafter. Notably, both neuroinflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the acute and long-term sequelae of status epilepticus thus representing potential druggable targets. Antiinflammatory drugs that interfere with the IL-1β pathway, such as anakinra, can control benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus in animals, and there is recent proof-of-concept evidence for therapeutic effects in children with Febrile infection related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). Inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase and P2X7 receptor antagonists are also promising antiinflammatory drug candidates for rapidly aborting de novo status epilepticus and provide neuroprotection. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant drugs administered to rodents during status epilepticus and transiently thereafter, prevent long-term sequelae such as cognitive deficits and seizure progression in animals developing epilepsy. Some drugs are already in medical use and are well-tolerated, therefore, they may be considered for treating status epilepticus and its neurological consequences. Finally, markers of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are measureable in peripheral blood and by neuroimaging, which offers an opportunity for developing prognostic and predictive mechanistic biomarkers in people exposed to status epilepticus. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106275
JournalEpilepsy and Behavior
Issue numberPt B
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


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