Inflammatory Biomarkers in Heart Failure Revisited: Much More than Innocent Bystanders

Stephan von Haehling, Joerg C. Schefold, Mitja Lainscak, Wolfram Doehner, Stefan D. Anker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chronic heart failure is viewed as a state of chronic inflammation. Many inflammatory markers have been shown to be up-regulated in patients who have this condition, but the markers' roles in clinical decision making have not yet been fully elucidated. A panel of biomarkers is likely to have a strong impact on patient management. Inflammatory biomarkers are interesting candidates that could answer specific clinical questions on their own or complement a multi-marker approach. This article provides a broad overview of several inflammatory biomarkers, including the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-18, and the soluble receptors TNFR-1, TNFR-2, IL-6R, and gp130. In addition to these acute phase reactants, several adhesion molecules, and lipopolysaccharide-signaling pathways are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-560
Number of pages12
JournalHeart Failure Clinics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2009


  • Acute phase
  • Adhesion molecule
  • Biomarker
  • Cytokine
  • Heart failure
  • Immune system
  • Inflammation
  • Tumor necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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