Inflammatory cytokines in pediatric cardiac surgery and variable effect of the hemofiltration process

Gianluca Brancaccio, Emmanuel Villa, Elia Girolami, Guido Michielon, Cristina Feltri, Ennio Mazzera, Dina Costa, Giancarlo Isacchi, Enrico Iannace, Antonio Amodeo, Roberto M. Di Donato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) elicits an inflammatory response and has a multitude of biological consequences, ranging from subclinical organ dysfunction to severe multiorgan failure. Pediatric patients are more prone to have a reaction that can jeopardize their outcome. Cytokines are supposed to be important mediators in this response: limiting their circulating levels is, therefore, appealing. We investigated the pattern of cytokine release during pediatric operation for congenital heart anomalies in 20 patients, and the effect of hemofiltration. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was elevated after anesthesia induction and showed significant decrease during CPB. Hemofiltration reduced its concentration, but the effect disappeared on the following day. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) increased slowly at the end of CPB and hemofiltration had no effect. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) showed a tendency toward augmentation during rewarming and hemofiltration did not significantly affect the course. Soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6r) had a pattern similar to TNF-α, but hemofiltration had no effect. On the other hand, interleukin-8 (IL-8) behaved like 11-6. Our findings suggest that baseline clinical status, anesthetic drugs, and maneuvers before incision may elicit a cytokine response, whereas rewarming is a critical phase of CPB. Hemofiltration is effective in removal of TNF-α, but its role is debatable for the control of IL-1, IL-6, sIL-6r and IL-8 levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-268
Number of pages6
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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