BACKGROUND: Some genes could interact with cardiovascular risk factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between ApoE ε4 status, Clock T3111C and Per2 C111G polymorphisms with cardiovascular profile in Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).
METHODS: We included 68 patients who underwent clinical evaluation; neuropsychological assessment; ApoE, Clock and Per2 genotyping at baseline; and neuropsychological follow-up every 12-24 months for a mean of 13 years. We considered subjects who developed AD and non-converters.
RESULTS: Clock T3111C was detected in 47% of cases, Per2 C111G in 19% of cases. ApoE ε4 carriers presented higher risk of heart disease; Clock C-carriers were more frequently smokers than non C-carriers. During the follow-up, 17 patients progressed to AD. Age at baseline, ApoE ε 4 and dyslipidemia increased the risk of conversion to AD. ApoE ε4 carriers with history of dyslipidemia showed higher risk to convert to AD compared to ApoE ε4- groups and ApoE ε4+ without dyslipidemia patients. Clock C-carriers with history of blood hypertension had a higher risk of conversion to AD.
CONCLUSIONS: ApoE and Clock T3111C seem to interact with cardiovascular risk factors in SCD and MCI patients influencing the progression to AD.