Influence of nutrition on somatotropic axis: Milk consumption in adult individuals with moderate-severe obesity

Luigi Barrea, Carolina Di Somma, Paolo Emidio Macchia, Andrea Falco, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background & aims: Nutrition is the major environmental factor that influences the risk of developing pathologies, such as obesity. Although a number of recent reviews pinpoint a protective effects of milk on body weight and obesity related co-morbidities, an inaccurate estimate of milk might contribute to hamper its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Seven-day food records provide prospective food intake data, reducing recall bias and providing extra details about specific food items. Milk intake stimulates the somatotropic axis at multiple levels by increasing both growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion. On the other hand, obesity is associated with reduced spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion and basal IGF-1 levels. Aim of this study was to evaluate the milk consumption by using the 7-days food record in obese individuals and to investigate the association between milk intake and GH secretory status in these subjects. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study carried out on 281 adult individuals (200 women and 81 men, aged 18-74 years) with moderate-severe obesity (BMI 35.2-69.4 kg/m2). Baseline milk intake data were collected using a 7 day food record. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical profile were determined. The GH/IGF-1 axis was evaluated by peak GH response after GHRH + ARGININE and IGF-1 standard deviation score (SDS). Results: The majority of individuals (72.2%) reported consuming milk; 250 mL low-fat milk was the most frequently serving of milk consumed, while no subjects reported to consume whole milk. Milk consumers vs no milk consumers presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile. At the bivariate proportional odds ratio model, after adjusting for BMI, age and gender, milk consumption was associated the better GH status (OR = 0.60; p <0.001). Among milk consumers, subjects consuming 250 mL reduced-fat milk vs 250 mL low-fat milk presented the better anthropometric measurements and metabolic profile. At the bivariate proportional odds ratio model, after adjusting for BMI, age and gender, the consume of 250 mL reduced-fat milk was associated better GH status (OR = 0.54; p = 0.003). Conclusions: A novel positive association between milk consumption, GH status, and metabolic profile in obese individuals was evidenced. Regardless of the pathogenetic mechanisms, this novel association might be relevant in a context where commonly obese individuals skip breakfast, and suggests the need of a growing cooperation between Nutritionists and Endocrinologists in the management of the obese patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Aug 6 2015

Keywords

  • Environmental factors
  • Milk consumption
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Somatotropic axis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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