Chondrosarcomas (CHS) are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features, characterized by resistance to chemo- and radiation therapies. In this study, we investigated the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM)s in tumor tissues from CHS patients by immunohistochemistry. Three-dimensional organotypic co-cultures were set up in order to evaluate the contribution of primary human CHS cells in driving an M2-like phenotype in monocyte-derived primary macrophages, and the capability of macrophages to promote growth and/or invasiveness of CHS cells. Finally, with an in vivo model of primary CHS cells engrafted in nude mice, we tested the ability of a potent peptide inhibitor of cell migration (Ac-d-Tyr-d-Arg-Aib-d-Arg-NH2, denoted RI-3) to reduce recruitment and infiltration of monocytes into CHS neoplastic lesions. We found a significant correlation between alternatively activated M2 macrophages and intratumor microvessel density in both conventional and dedifferentiated CHS human tissues, suggesting a link between TAM abundance and vascularization in CHS. In 3D and non-contact cu-culture models, soluble factors produced by CHS induced a M2-like phenotype in macrophages that, in turn, increased motility, invasion and matrix spreading of CHS cells. Finally, we present evidence that RI-3 successfully prevent both recruitment and infiltration of monocytes into CHS tissues, in nude mice.
- cell migration inhibitors
- tumor-associated macrophages