Inhibition of Dual/Mixed Tropic HIV-1 Isolates by CCR5-Inhibitors in Primary Lymphocytes and Macrophages

Matteo Surdo, Emanuela Balestra, Patrizia Saccomandi, Fabiola Di Santo, Marco Montano, Domenico Di Carlo, Loredana Sarmati, Stefano Aquaro, Massimo Andreoni, Valentina Svicher, Carlo Federico Perno, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein

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Background: Dual/mixed-tropic HIV-1 strains are predominant in a significant proportion of patients, though little information is available regarding their replication-capacity and susceptibility against CCR5-antagonists in-vitro. The aim of the study was to analyze the replication-capacity and susceptibility to maraviroc of HIV-1 clinical isolates with different tropism characteristics in primary monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM), peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMC), and CD4+T-lymphocytes. Methods: Twenty-three HIV-1 isolates were phenotipically and genotipically characterized as R5, X4 or dual (discriminated as R5+/X4, R5/X4, R5/X4+). Phenotypic-tropism was evaluated by multiple-cycles-assay on U87MG-CD4+-CCR5+-/CXCR4+-expressing cells. Genotypic-tropism prediction was obtained using Geno2Pheno-algorithm (false-positive-rate [FPR] = 10%). Replication-capacity and susceptibility to maraviroc were investigated in human-primary MDM, PBMC and CD4+T-cells. AMD3100 was used as CXCR4-inhibitor. Infectivity of R5/Dual/X4-viruses in presence/absence of maraviroc was assessed also by total HIV-DNA, quantified by real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Results: Among 23 HIV-1 clinical isolates, phenotypic-tropism-assay distinguished 4, 17 and 2 viruses with R5-tropic, dual/mixed-, and X4-tropic characteristics, respectively. Overall, viruses defined as R5+/X4-tropic were found with the highest prevalence (10/23, 43.5%). The majority of isolates efficiently replicated in both PBMC and CD4+T-cells, regardless of their tropism, while MDM mainly sustained replication of R5- or R5+/X4-tropic isolates; strong correlation between viral-replication and genotypic-FPR-values was observed in MDM (rho = 0.710;p-value = 1.4e-4). In all primary cells, maraviroc inhibited viral-replication of isolates not only with pure R5- but also with dual/mixed tropism (mainly R5+/X4 and, to a lesser extent R5/X4 and R5/X4+). Finally, no main differences by comparing the total HIV-DNA with the p24-production in presence/absence of maraviroc were found. Conclusions: Maraviroc is effective in-vitro against viruses with dual-characteristics in both MDM and lymphocytes, despite the potential X4-mediated escape. This suggests that the concept of HIV-entry through one of the two coreceptors "separately" may require revision, and that the use of CCR5-antagonists in patients with dual/mixed-tropic viruses may be a therapeutic-option that deserves further investigations in different clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere68076
JournalPLoS One
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 9 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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