Severe malaria anemia is characterized by inhibited/altered erythropoiesis and presence of hemozoin-(HZ)-laden bone-marrow macrophages. HZ mediates peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and production of bioactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). HZ-laden human monocytes inhibited growth of cocultivated human erythroid cells and produced HNE that diffused to adjacent cells generating HNE-protein adducts. Cocultivation with HZ or treatment with low micromolar HNE inhibited growth of erythroid cells interfering with cell cycle without apoptosis. After HZ/HNE treatment, 2 critical proteins in cell-cycle regulation, p53 and p21, were increased and the retinoblastoma protein, central regulator of G1-to-S-phase transition, was consequently hypophosphorylated, while GATA-1, master transcription factor in erythropoiesis was reduced. The resultant decreased expression of cyclin A and D2 retarded cell-cycle progression in erythroid cells and the K562 cell line. As a second major effect, HZ and HNE inhibited protein expression of crucial receptors (R): transferrinR1, stem cell factorR, interleukin-3R, and erythropoietinR. The reduced receptor expression and the impaired cell-cycle activity decreased the production of cells expressing glycophorin-A and hemoglobin. Present data confirm the inhibitory role of HZ, identify HNE as one HZ-generated inhibitory molecule and describe molecular targets of HNE in erythroid progenitors possibly involved in erythropoiesis inhibition in malaria anemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology