A reduced incidence and decreased clinical progression of uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) has been observed in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treated with HIV-protease inhibitors (PIs). The HIV-PIs saquinavir (SQV) and ritonavir (RTV) have been demonstrated to efficiently inhibit invasion of human primary CIN cells by downregulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. The present study further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of SQV and RTV in CIN. The results of the present study indicate that the treatment of human primary CIN cells with SQV or RTV directly impairs events leading to MMP-9 expression, including the phosphorylation of AKT and the nuclear localisation of the Fos-related antigen transcription factor. In addition, neither SQV nor RTV affected the expression of human papilloma virus proteins, such as E6 or E7. In view of the important role that the AKT/Fra-1/MMP-9 signalling pathway serves in CIN progression to invasive cervical carcinoma, these data further support the use of HIV-PIs in the treatment of CIN in women infected with HIV and women who are not infected with HIV. Furthermore, the present study identified a molecular mechanism underlying the anti-invasive effects of SQV/RTV, providing useful information for the development of SQV/RTV derivatives, which may be employed as novel anticancer drugs.
- Fos-related antigen-1
- High-risk human papilloma viruses
- Human immunodeficiency virus-protease inhibitors
- Matrix metalloproteinase-9
- Uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research