The effect of fluoxetine on the steady-state plasma concentrations of risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-risperidone) was evaluated in 10 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Patients stabilized on risperidone (4-6 mg/day) received additional fluoxetine (20 mg/day) to treat concomitant depression. One patient dropped out after 1 week due to the occurrence of akathisia associated with markedly increased plasma risperidone concentrations. In the other subjects, mean plasma concentrations of risperidone increased during fluoxetine administration from 12 ± 9 ng/mL at baseline to 56 ± 31 at week 4 (p <0.001), while the levels of 9-OH-risperidone were not significantly affected. After 4 weeks of combined treatment, the levels of the active moiety (sum of the concentrations of risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone) increased by 75% (range, 9-204%, p <0.01) compared with baseline. The mean plasma risperidone/9-OH-risperidone ratio also increased significantly. During the second week of adjunctive therapy, two patients developed Parkinsonian symptoms, which were controlled with anticholinergic medication. These findings indicate that fluoxetine, a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6 and a less potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, reduces the clearance of risperidone by inhibiting its 9-hydroxylation or alternative metabolic pathways. This interaction may lead to toxic plasma risperidone concentrations. In addition to careful clinical observation, monitoring plasma risperidone levels may be of value in patients given adjunctive therapy with fluoxetine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)