The peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase Pin1 interacts with phosphorylated proteins, altering their conformation. The retinoic acid receptor RARα and the acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-specific counterpart PML-RARα directly interact with Pin1. Overexpression of Pin1 inhibits ligand-dependent activation of RARα and PML-RARα. Inhibition is relieved by Pin1-targeted short interfering RNAs and by pharmacologic inhibition of the catalytic activity of the protein. Mutants of Pin1 catalytically inactive or defective for client-protein-binding activity are incapable of inhibiting ligand-dependent RARα transcriptional activity. Functional inhibition of RARα and PML-RARα by Pin1 correlates with degradation of the nuclear receptors via the proteasome-dependent pathway. In the acute myelogenous leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4, Pin1 interacts with RARα in a constitutive fashion. Suppression of Pin1 by a specific short hairpin RNA in HL-60 or NB4 cells stabilizes RARα and PML-RARα, resulting in increased sensitivity to the cytodifferentiating and antiproliferative activities of all-trans retinoic acid. Treatment of the two cell lines and freshly isolated acute myelogenous leukemia blasts (M1 to M4) with ATRA and a pharmacologic inhibitor of Pin1 causes similar effects. Our results add a further layer of complexity to the regulation of nuclear retinoic acid receptors and suggest that Pin1 represents an important target for strategies aimed at increasing the therapeutic index of retinoids.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research