The incidence of factor IX (FIX) inhibitors in severe hemophilia B (SHB) is not well defined. Frequencies of 3-5% have been reported but most studies to date have been small, including patients with different severities, and without prospective follow up for inhibitor incidence. The study objective was to investigate the inhibitor incidence in patients with SHB followed up for to 500 exposure days (ED), the frequency of allergic reactions, and the relationship with genotypes. Consecutive previously untreated patients (PUP) with SHB enrolled into the PedNet cohort were included. Detailed data was collected for the first 50 ED, followed by the annual collection of the inhibitor status and allergic re-actions. The presence of inhibitors was defined by at least two consecutive positive samples. Additionally, data on FIX gene mutation was collected. One hundred and fifty-four PUP with SHB were included; 75% were followed up until 75 ED, and 43% until 500 ED. Inhibitors developed in 14 patients (seven high-titer). The median number of ED at inhibitor manifestation was 11 (interquartile range [IQR]: 6.5-36.5). The cumulative inhibitor incidence was 9.3% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 4.4-14.1) at 75 ED, and 10.2% (95% CI: 5.1-15.3) at 500 ED. Allergic reactions occurred in four (28.6%) inhibitor patients. Missense mutations were most frequent (46.8%) overall but not associated with inhibitors. Nonsense mutations and deletions with large structural changes comprised all mutations among inhibitor patients and were associated with an inhibitor risk of 26.9% and 33.3%, respectively. In an unselected, well-defined cohort of PUP with SHB, the cumulative inhibitor incidence was 10.2% at 500 ED. Nonsense mutations and large deletions were strongly associated with the risk of inhibitor development. The 'PedNet Registry' is registered at clinicaltrials.gov; identifier: NCT02979119.
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