Inhibitors of propagation of coagulation: Factors V and X

Vincenzo Toschi, Maddalena Lettino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiovascular diseases are still the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries and antithrombotic treatment is nowadays widely used. Drugs able to reduce coagulation activation are the treatment of choice for a number of arterial and/or venous thromboembolic conditions. Some of the drugs currently used for this purpose, such as heparins (UFH or LMWH) and VKA, have limitations consisting of a narrow therapeutic window and an unpredictable response with the need of laboratory monitoring in order to assess their efficacy and safety. These drawbacks have stimulated an active research aimed to develop new drugs able to act on single factors involved in the coagulation network, with predictable response. Intense experimental and clinical work on new drugs has focused on synthetic agents, which could preferably be administered orally and at fixed doses. The most advanced clinical development with new anticoagulants has been achieved for those inhibiting FXa and some of them, like fondaparinux, are already currently used in clinical practice. Other agents, such as rivaroxaban, apixaban, otamixaban and edoxaban are under development and have already been studied or are currently under investigation in large scale phase III clinical trials for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndromes. Some of them have proved to be more effective than conventional therapy. Data on some agents inhibiting FVa are still preliminary and some of these drugs have so far been considered only in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to sepsis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)563-580
Number of pages18
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011


  • Acute coronary syndromes
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Factor Va inhibitors
  • Factor Xa inhibitors
  • Stroke
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


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