Innate and adaptive immunity in self-reported nonceliac gluten sensitivity versus celiac disease

Antonio Di Sabatino, Paolo Giuffrida, Giulia Fornasa, Chiara Salvatore, Alessandro Vanoli, Samuele Naviglio, Luigina De Leo, Alessandra Pasini, Mara De Amici, Costanza Alvisi, Tarcisio Not, Maria Rescigno, Gino Roberto Corazza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Immune mechanisms have been implicated in nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), a condition characterized by intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms caused by the ingestion of gluten in non-celiac/non-wheat allergic individuals. Aims: We investigated innate and adaptive immunity in self-reported NCGS versus celiac disease (CD). Methods: In the supernatants of ex vivo-cultured duodenal biopsies from 14 self-reported NCGS patients, 9 untreated and 10 treated CD patients, and 12 controls we detected innate cytokines - interleukin (IL)-15, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-23, IL-27, IL-32α, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IFN-α-, adaptive cytokines - interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17A, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13-, chemokines - IL-8, CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL10-, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Results: Mucosal innate and adaptive cytokines, chemokines and growth factors did not differ between self-reported NCGS, treated CD and controls. On the contrary, IL-6, IL-15, IL-27, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-23, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-8, CCL1 and CCL4 were significantly higher in untreated CD than in self-reported NCGS, treated CD and controls, while TSLP was significantly lower in untreated CD than in self-reported NCGS, treated CD and controls. Conclusion: In our hands, patients with self-reported NCGS showed no abnormalities of the mucosal immune response.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDigestive and Liver Disease
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Dec 13 2015



  • Chemokine
  • Cytokine
  • Duodenal mucosa
  • Tissue transglutaminase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Hepatology

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