Innovative MRI Techniques in Neuroimaging Approaches for Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Cognitive impairment and dementia are recognized as major threats to public health. Many studies have shown the important role played by challenges to the cerebral vasculature and the neurovascular unit. To investigate the structural and functional characteristics of the brain, MRI has proven an invaluable tool for visualizing the internal organs of patients and analyzing the parameters related to neuronal activation and blood flow in vivo. Different strategies of imaging can be combined to obtain various parameters: (i) measures of cortical and subcortical structures (cortical thickness, subcortical structures volume); (ii) evaluation of microstructural characteristics of the white matter (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity); (iii) neuronal activation and synchronicity to identify functional networks across different regions (functional connectivity between specific regions, graph measures of specific nodes); and (iv) structure of the cerebral vasculature and its efficacy in irrorating the brain (main vessel diameter, cerebral perfusion). The high amount of data obtainable from multi-modal sources calls for methods of advanced analysis, like machine-learning algorithms that allow the discrimination of the most informative features, to comprehensively characterize the cerebrovascular network into specific and sensitive biomarkers. By using the same techniques of human imaging in pre-clinical research, we can also investigate the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological alterations identified in patients by imaging, with the chance of looking for molecular mechanisms to recover the pathology or hamper its progression.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume20
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 30 2019

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Neuroimaging
Cerebrovascular Disorders
impairment
Magnetic resonance imaging
brain
Blood Vessels
activation
Imaging techniques
public health
machine learning
biomarkers
Brain
Anisotropy
pathology
blood flow
Chemical activation
progressions
organs
diffusivity
vessels

Cite this

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title = "Innovative MRI Techniques in Neuroimaging Approaches for Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive Impairment",
abstract = "Cognitive impairment and dementia are recognized as major threats to public health. Many studies have shown the important role played by challenges to the cerebral vasculature and the neurovascular unit. To investigate the structural and functional characteristics of the brain, MRI has proven an invaluable tool for visualizing the internal organs of patients and analyzing the parameters related to neuronal activation and blood flow in vivo. Different strategies of imaging can be combined to obtain various parameters: (i) measures of cortical and subcortical structures (cortical thickness, subcortical structures volume); (ii) evaluation of microstructural characteristics of the white matter (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity); (iii) neuronal activation and synchronicity to identify functional networks across different regions (functional connectivity between specific regions, graph measures of specific nodes); and (iv) structure of the cerebral vasculature and its efficacy in irrorating the brain (main vessel diameter, cerebral perfusion). The high amount of data obtainable from multi-modal sources calls for methods of advanced analysis, like machine-learning algorithms that allow the discrimination of the most informative features, to comprehensively characterize the cerebrovascular network into specific and sensitive biomarkers. By using the same techniques of human imaging in pre-clinical research, we can also investigate the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological alterations identified in patients by imaging, with the chance of looking for molecular mechanisms to recover the pathology or hamper its progression.",
author = "Lorenzo Carnevale and Giuseppe Lembo",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Innovative MRI Techniques in Neuroimaging Approaches for Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive Impairment

AU - Carnevale, Lorenzo

AU - Lembo, Giuseppe

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N2 - Cognitive impairment and dementia are recognized as major threats to public health. Many studies have shown the important role played by challenges to the cerebral vasculature and the neurovascular unit. To investigate the structural and functional characteristics of the brain, MRI has proven an invaluable tool for visualizing the internal organs of patients and analyzing the parameters related to neuronal activation and blood flow in vivo. Different strategies of imaging can be combined to obtain various parameters: (i) measures of cortical and subcortical structures (cortical thickness, subcortical structures volume); (ii) evaluation of microstructural characteristics of the white matter (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity); (iii) neuronal activation and synchronicity to identify functional networks across different regions (functional connectivity between specific regions, graph measures of specific nodes); and (iv) structure of the cerebral vasculature and its efficacy in irrorating the brain (main vessel diameter, cerebral perfusion). The high amount of data obtainable from multi-modal sources calls for methods of advanced analysis, like machine-learning algorithms that allow the discrimination of the most informative features, to comprehensively characterize the cerebrovascular network into specific and sensitive biomarkers. By using the same techniques of human imaging in pre-clinical research, we can also investigate the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological alterations identified in patients by imaging, with the chance of looking for molecular mechanisms to recover the pathology or hamper its progression.

AB - Cognitive impairment and dementia are recognized as major threats to public health. Many studies have shown the important role played by challenges to the cerebral vasculature and the neurovascular unit. To investigate the structural and functional characteristics of the brain, MRI has proven an invaluable tool for visualizing the internal organs of patients and analyzing the parameters related to neuronal activation and blood flow in vivo. Different strategies of imaging can be combined to obtain various parameters: (i) measures of cortical and subcortical structures (cortical thickness, subcortical structures volume); (ii) evaluation of microstructural characteristics of the white matter (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity); (iii) neuronal activation and synchronicity to identify functional networks across different regions (functional connectivity between specific regions, graph measures of specific nodes); and (iv) structure of the cerebral vasculature and its efficacy in irrorating the brain (main vessel diameter, cerebral perfusion). The high amount of data obtainable from multi-modal sources calls for methods of advanced analysis, like machine-learning algorithms that allow the discrimination of the most informative features, to comprehensively characterize the cerebrovascular network into specific and sensitive biomarkers. By using the same techniques of human imaging in pre-clinical research, we can also investigate the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological alterations identified in patients by imaging, with the chance of looking for molecular mechanisms to recover the pathology or hamper its progression.

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JO - International Journal of Molecular Sciences

JF - International Journal of Molecular Sciences

SN - 1661-6596

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