Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative, immunoregulatory properties and can be easily isolated and expanded in vitro. Despite being a powerful tool for clinical applications, they present limitations in terms of delivery, safety, and variability of therapeutic response. Interestingly, the MSC secretome composed by cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteins, and extracellular vesicles, could represent a valid alternative to their use. It is noteworthy that MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) have the same effect and could be advantageous compared to the parental cells because of their specific miRNAs load. MiRNAs could be useful both in diagnostic procedures such as "liquid biopsy" to identify early pathologies and in the therapeutic field. Not only are MSC-EVs' preservation, transfer, and production easier, but their administration is also safer, hence some clinical trials are ongoing. However, much effort is required to improve the characterization of EVs to avoid artifacts and guarantee reproducibility of the studies.