Context: Epidemiological studies have shown a progressive increase in insulin resistance (IR) accompanying body weight gain and blood pressure (BP) increase. This has led to the consideration that hemodynamic effects of IR might depend on its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and BP. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine whether IR is associated with changes in hemodynamic indices of cardiovascular function across different categories of BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obese), and BP levels (normal, high normal, and hypertension). Design, Setting and Participants: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a population sample of nondiabetic individuals (n = 731). Measures: Insulin resistance was evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA) and subjects were classified into quartiles according to HOMA index values. Synchronized beat-to-beat recordings of stroke volume (impedance cardiography) and R-R interval, along with repeated auscultatory BP measurements were performed. Derived hemodynamic parameters were computed and averaged. Results: Analysis of covariance adjusting for confounders showed significant differences for most hemodynamic parameters among different quartiles of HOMA index both in the general population and within each BMI and BP category. Overall, increasing values of HOMA index were associated with significantly higher BP; and reduced R-R interval, stroke index, cardiac index, pre-ejection period and left ventricular ejection time (P <.01) across different categories of BMI and BP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that even small increases in HOMA index (not necessarily in the range to define IR) may induce significant changes on indices of cardiovascular function even in normal-weight and normotensive subjects, emphasizing the importance of IR at an early stage of the cardiovascular risk continuum.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism