Recent evidence has revealed the importance of reciprocal functional interactions between different types of mononuclear cells in coordinating the repair of injured muscles. In particular, signals released from the inflammatory infiltrate and from mesenchymal interstitial cells (also known as fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs)) appear to instruct muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to break quiescence, proliferate and differentiate. Interestingly, conditions that compromise the functional integrity of this network can bias muscle repair toward pathological outcomes that are typically observed in chronic muscular disorders, that is, fibrotic and fatty muscle degeneration as well as myofiber atrophy. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of this network in physiological and pathological conditions, and anticipate the potential contribution of its cellular components to relatively unexplored conditions, such as aging and physical exercise.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience