Interface infectious keratitis after anterior and posterior lamellar keratoplasty. Clinical features and treatment strategies. A review

Luigi Fontana, Antonio Moramarco, Erika Mandarà, Giuseppe Russello, Alfonso Iovieno

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Interface infectious keratitis (IIK) is a novel corneal infection that may develop after any type of lamellar keratoplasty. Onset of infection occurs in the virtual space between the graft and the host where it may remain localised until spreading with possible risk of endophthalmitis. A literature review identified 42 cases of IIK. Thirty-one of them occurred after endothelial keratoplasty and 12 after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. Fungi in the form of Candida species were the most common microorganisms involved, with donor to host transmission of infection documented in the majority of cases. Donor rim cultures were useful to address the infectious microorganisms within few days after surgery. Due to the sequestered site of infection, medical treatment, using both topical and systemic antimicrobials drugs, was ineffective on halting the progression of the infection. Injection of antifungals, right at the graft-host interface, was reported successful in some cases. Spreading of the infection with development of endophthalmitis occurred in five cases after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with severe sight loss in three cases. Early excisional penetrating keratoplasty showed to be the treatment with the highest therapeutic efficacy, lowest rate of complications and greater visual outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-314
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume103
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2019

Keywords

  • corneal interface infection
  • deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty
  • endophthalmitis
  • endothelial keratoplasty
  • keratitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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