Interindividual and intra-individual variabilities of darunavir and ritonavir plasma trough concentrations in multidrug experienced hiv patients receiving salvage regimens

Silvia Baroncelli, Paola Villani, Clementina M. Galluzzo, Albertina Cavalli, Anna Volpe, Daniela Francisci, Angela Vivarelli, Federica Sozio, Sara Tedeschi, Oscar Cirioni, Laura Sighinolfi, Maria Cusato, Maria F. Pirillo, Liliana E. Weimer, Vincenzo Fragola, Giustino Parruti, Mario Regazzi, Marco Floridia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND:: There is no consensus on darunavir (DRV) target levels in plasma for clinical use, and information about variability in plasma concentrations is limited. AIM:: To investigate the variability in DRV plasma trough concentrations in the clinical setting, evaluating interindividual and intraindividual variabilities of plasma drug levels among HIV-infected patients receiving ritonavir (RTV)-boosted DRV (DRV/r) within salvage regimens, and evaluate the potential correlation between variability and virological response. METHODS:: Sixty-two patients taking DRV/r (600/100 mg twice a day) were evaluated for trough plasma concentrations and immunovirological parameters after 6 months from the start of the regimen. A subgroup of patients (n = 21) was also evaluated for intraindividual variability (expressed as coefficient of variation) on 2 samples taken at different time points. Drug concentrations were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, and the values were expressed as medians with interquartile range (IQR). Genotypic sensitivity score and genotypic inhibitory quotient were calculated. RESULTS:: DRV/r was used with a median of 3 other antiretroviral drugs (raltegravir use 88.7%). Median plasma concentrations were 3.22 mcg/mL (IQR, 2.04-5.69) for DRV and 0.44 mcg/mL (IQR, 0.21-0.70) for RTV. Both drugs showed a high interindividual variability in plasma concentrations (61% and 99.3%, respectively). Only 3 patients (4.8%) had undetectable DRV plasma levels. DRV plasma concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.298, P = 0.019), but no significant correlation between DRV genotypic inhibitory quotient and HIV-RNA plasma levels (P = 0.614) was found. Intraindividual coefficients of variation were 58.4% for DRV and 47.1% for RTV. Patients with undetectable HIV-RNA showed a trend for lower intraindividual coefficients of variation compared with patients with detectable HIV-RNA (55.9% versus 83.8%, P = 0.156). No major interaction effects with other antiretroviral drugs were found. CONCLUSIONS:: In a context of salvage therapy, both DRV and RTV plasma levels showed high interindividual and intraindividual variabilities. Lower intraindividual variability could be beneficial in maintaining viral suppression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)785-790
Number of pages6
JournalTherapeutic Drug Monitoring
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013


  • Ctrough
  • Darunavir
  • HIV-1
  • Intraindividual variation
  • Ritonavir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


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