Interleukin-1 and Related Cytokines in the Regulation of Inflammation and Immunity

Alberto Mantovani, Charles A Dinarello, Martina Molgora, Cecilia Garlanda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Forty years after its naming, interleukin-1 (IL-1) is experiencing a renaissance brought on by the growing understanding of its context-dependent roles and advances in the clinic. Recent studies have identified important roles for members of the IL-1 family-IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, and IL-38-in inflammation and immunity. Here, we review the complex functions of IL-1 family members in the orchestration of innate and adaptive immune responses and their diversity and plasticity. We discuss the varied roles of IL-1 family members in immune homeostasis and their contribution to pathologies, including autoimmunity and auto-inflammation, dysmetabolism, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. The trans-disease therapeutic activity of anti-IL-1 strategies argues for immunity and inflammation as a metanarrative of modern medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)778-795
Number of pages18
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 16 2019


  • Adaptive Immunity/immunology
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology
  • Cytokines/genetics
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases/immunology
  • Hematopoiesis/immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate/immunology
  • Inflammation/immunology
  • Interleukin-1/immunology
  • Lymphocytes/immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Multigene Family
  • Neoplasms/immunology
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology
  • Receptors, Cytokine/genetics


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