Interleukin 1 induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus alone and in synergy with interleukin 6 in chronically infected U1 cells: Inhibition of inductive effects by the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist

Guido Poli, Audrey L. Kinter, Anthony S. Fauci

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Abstract

In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1α or IL-1β directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In addition, IL-1 synergized with IL-6, but not with tumor necrosis factor, in the upregulation of virus expression in U1 cells as measured by accumulation of steady-state mRNAs and production of reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV inductive effect of IL-1 was blocked by transforming growth factor β, anti-IL-1 antibodies, or monoclonal antibodies directed to the type 1, but not to the type 2, cell surface receptor for IL-1; the latter actually caused enhancement of the IL-1-mediated effect. Unlike tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1 either alone or in combination with IL-6 did not induce activation of the transcription activating factor NF-κB above the constitutive levels of unstimulated U1 cells. Finally, the IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively blocked IL-1-mediated direct and synergistic inductive effects on virus production. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator of HIV expression, and blocking of IL-1 expression and/or its effects may have a potential therapeutic role in the inhibition of HIV expression in infected individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-112
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume91
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 4 1994

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Interleukin-1 Receptors
Interleukin-1
Interleukin-6
HIV
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Activating Transcription Factors
Viruses
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
Cell Surface Receptors
Transforming Growth Factors
Up-Regulation
Monoclonal Antibodies

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Iatency
  • NF-κB

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • Genetics

Cite this

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title = "Interleukin 1 induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus alone and in synergy with interleukin 6 in chronically infected U1 cells: Inhibition of inductive effects by the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist",
abstract = "In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1α or IL-1β directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In addition, IL-1 synergized with IL-6, but not with tumor necrosis factor, in the upregulation of virus expression in U1 cells as measured by accumulation of steady-state mRNAs and production of reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV inductive effect of IL-1 was blocked by transforming growth factor β, anti-IL-1 antibodies, or monoclonal antibodies directed to the type 1, but not to the type 2, cell surface receptor for IL-1; the latter actually caused enhancement of the IL-1-mediated effect. Unlike tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1 either alone or in combination with IL-6 did not induce activation of the transcription activating factor NF-κB above the constitutive levels of unstimulated U1 cells. Finally, the IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively blocked IL-1-mediated direct and synergistic inductive effects on virus production. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator of HIV expression, and blocking of IL-1 expression and/or its effects may have a potential therapeutic role in the inhibition of HIV expression in infected individuals.",
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AU - Fauci, Anthony S.

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N2 - In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1α or IL-1β directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In addition, IL-1 synergized with IL-6, but not with tumor necrosis factor, in the upregulation of virus expression in U1 cells as measured by accumulation of steady-state mRNAs and production of reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV inductive effect of IL-1 was blocked by transforming growth factor β, anti-IL-1 antibodies, or monoclonal antibodies directed to the type 1, but not to the type 2, cell surface receptor for IL-1; the latter actually caused enhancement of the IL-1-mediated effect. Unlike tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1 either alone or in combination with IL-6 did not induce activation of the transcription activating factor NF-κB above the constitutive levels of unstimulated U1 cells. Finally, the IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively blocked IL-1-mediated direct and synergistic inductive effects on virus production. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator of HIV expression, and blocking of IL-1 expression and/or its effects may have a potential therapeutic role in the inhibition of HIV expression in infected individuals.

AB - In the present study we have observed that interleukin (IL) 1α or IL-1β directly induced expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the latently infected human promonocytic cell line U1. In addition, IL-1 synergized with IL-6, but not with tumor necrosis factor, in the upregulation of virus expression in U1 cells as measured by accumulation of steady-state mRNAs and production of reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV inductive effect of IL-1 was blocked by transforming growth factor β, anti-IL-1 antibodies, or monoclonal antibodies directed to the type 1, but not to the type 2, cell surface receptor for IL-1; the latter actually caused enhancement of the IL-1-mediated effect. Unlike tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1 either alone or in combination with IL-6 did not induce activation of the transcription activating factor NF-κB above the constitutive levels of unstimulated U1 cells. Finally, the IL-1 receptor antagonist effectively blocked IL-1-mediated direct and synergistic inductive effects on virus production. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator of HIV expression, and blocking of IL-1 expression and/or its effects may have a potential therapeutic role in the inhibition of HIV expression in infected individuals.

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