Purpose: The interleukin (IL)-27 cytokine subunit p28, also called IL-30, has been recognized as a novel immunoregulatory mediator endowed with its own functions. These are currently the subject of discussion in immunology, but completely unexplored in cancer biology. We set out to investigate the role of IL-30 in prostate carcinogenesis and its effects on human prostate cancer (hPCa) cells. Experimental Design: IL-30 expression, as visualized by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on prostate and draining lymph nodes from 125 patients with prostate cancer, was correlated with clinicopathologic data. IL-30 regulation of hPCa cell viability and expression of selected gene clusters was tested by flow cytometry and PCR array. Results: IL-30, absent in normal prostatic epithelia, was expressed by cancerous epithelia with Gleason ≥ 7%of 21.3% of prostate cancer stage I to III and 40.9% of prostate cancer stage IV. IL-30 expression by tumor infiltrating leukocytes (T-ILK) was higher in stage IV that in stage I to III prostate cancer (P = 0.0006) or in control tissue (P=0.0011). IL-30 expression in prostate draining lymph nodes (LN)-ILK was higher in stage IV than in stage I to III prostate cancer (P=0.0031) or in control nodes (P=0.0023). The main IL-30 sources were identified as CD68 + macrophages, CD33 + /CD11b + myeloid cells, and CD14 + monocytes. In vitro, IL- 30 stimulated proliferation of hPCa cells and also downregulated CCL16/LEC, TNFSF14/LIGHT, chemokine- like factor (CKLF), and particularly CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 3 (CMTM3) and greatly upregulated ChemR23/CMKLR. Conclusions:Weprovide the first evidence that IL-30 is implicated in prostate cancer progression because (i) its expression by prostate cancer or T- and LN-ILK correlates with advanced disease grade and stage; and (ii) IL-30 exerts protumor activity in hPCa cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research