Interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids synergistically induce human immunodeficiency virus type-1 expression in chronically infected U1 cells by a long terminal repeat independent post-transcriptional mechanism

A. L. Kinter, P. Biswas, M. Alfano, J. S. Justement, B. Mantelli, C. Rizzi, A. R. Gatti, E. Vicenzi, P. Bressler, G. Poli

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Abstract

Background: Glucocorticoids (GC) such as dexamethasone (Dex) can directly upregulate human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected cells and potentiate HIV expression from chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We have here investigated the potential effect of Dex in U1 cells stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine inducing virus expression by acting mostly at a post-transcriptional level on the virus life cycle. Materials and Methods: Virus production in culture supernatants was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. GC receptor expression was tested by both binding of [3H]-Dexamethasone 21-mesylate and Northern blotting. Cell-associated HIV protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting, whereas both HIV and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) RNA accumulation were evaluated by Northern blotting. HIV transcription was tested by long terminal repeat (LTR) chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) assay after transient transfection of U1 or U937 cells. Formation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding complex in nuclear cell extracts was visualized by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), whereas ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosporylation was studied by Western blotting. Results: IL-6 and Dex synergistically induced HIV expression in U1 cells, and this effect was blocked by RU 486. No substantial HIV RNA accumulation was demonstrated in U1 cells co-stimulated with IL-6 and Dex, whereas IL-6 upregulated the expression of MCP-1 RNA, and this effect was inhibited by Dex. In contrast, Dex potentiated IL-6 induced activation of AP-1 and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation, as revealed by EMSA. HIV-1 LTR driven transcription was observed in U1 cells stimulated with TNF-α and this effect was potentiated by Dex. In sharp contrast, no induction of LTR-directed CAT activity was observed in transfected U1 cells (or in their parental uninfected U937 cells) stimulated with IL-6 and Dex either alone or in combination. Conclusions: High levels of virion production can be induced in latently infected cells by stimulation with IL-6 and Dex in the absence of activation of the HIV LTR or viral transcription in spite of activation of both ERK1/2 MAPK and AP-1. These findings suggest the existence of LTR-independent pathways influenced by cytokine and GC through which HIV can maintain substantial levels of protein expression and virion production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)668-678
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
Volume7
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2001

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Terminal Repeat Sequences
Dexamethasone
Glucocorticoids
HIV-1
Interleukin-6
HIV
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
HIV Long Terminal Repeat
U937 Cells
Chemokine CCL2
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
RNA
Chloramphenicol
Transferases
Viruses
Northern Blotting
Virion
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Western Blotting
Cytokines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

Interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids synergistically induce human immunodeficiency virus type-1 expression in chronically infected U1 cells by a long terminal repeat independent post-transcriptional mechanism. / Kinter, A. L.; Biswas, P.; Alfano, M.; Justement, J. S.; Mantelli, B.; Rizzi, C.; Gatti, A. R.; Vicenzi, E.; Bressler, P.; Poli, G.

In: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), Vol. 7, No. 10, 2001, p. 668-678.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids synergistically induce human immunodeficiency virus type-1 expression in chronically infected U1 cells by a long terminal repeat independent post-transcriptional mechanism",
abstract = "Background: Glucocorticoids (GC) such as dexamethasone (Dex) can directly upregulate human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected cells and potentiate HIV expression from chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We have here investigated the potential effect of Dex in U1 cells stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine inducing virus expression by acting mostly at a post-transcriptional level on the virus life cycle. Materials and Methods: Virus production in culture supernatants was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. GC receptor expression was tested by both binding of [3H]-Dexamethasone 21-mesylate and Northern blotting. Cell-associated HIV protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting, whereas both HIV and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) RNA accumulation were evaluated by Northern blotting. HIV transcription was tested by long terminal repeat (LTR) chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) assay after transient transfection of U1 or U937 cells. Formation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding complex in nuclear cell extracts was visualized by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), whereas ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosporylation was studied by Western blotting. Results: IL-6 and Dex synergistically induced HIV expression in U1 cells, and this effect was blocked by RU 486. No substantial HIV RNA accumulation was demonstrated in U1 cells co-stimulated with IL-6 and Dex, whereas IL-6 upregulated the expression of MCP-1 RNA, and this effect was inhibited by Dex. In contrast, Dex potentiated IL-6 induced activation of AP-1 and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation, as revealed by EMSA. HIV-1 LTR driven transcription was observed in U1 cells stimulated with TNF-α and this effect was potentiated by Dex. In sharp contrast, no induction of LTR-directed CAT activity was observed in transfected U1 cells (or in their parental uninfected U937 cells) stimulated with IL-6 and Dex either alone or in combination. Conclusions: High levels of virion production can be induced in latently infected cells by stimulation with IL-6 and Dex in the absence of activation of the HIV LTR or viral transcription in spite of activation of both ERK1/2 MAPK and AP-1. These findings suggest the existence of LTR-independent pathways influenced by cytokine and GC through which HIV can maintain substantial levels of protein expression and virion production.",
author = "Kinter, {A. L.} and P. Biswas and M. Alfano and Justement, {J. S.} and B. Mantelli and C. Rizzi and Gatti, {A. R.} and E. Vicenzi and P. Bressler and G. Poli",
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T1 - Interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids synergistically induce human immunodeficiency virus type-1 expression in chronically infected U1 cells by a long terminal repeat independent post-transcriptional mechanism

AU - Kinter, A. L.

AU - Biswas, P.

AU - Alfano, M.

AU - Justement, J. S.

AU - Mantelli, B.

AU - Rizzi, C.

AU - Gatti, A. R.

AU - Vicenzi, E.

AU - Bressler, P.

AU - Poli, G.

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Background: Glucocorticoids (GC) such as dexamethasone (Dex) can directly upregulate human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected cells and potentiate HIV expression from chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We have here investigated the potential effect of Dex in U1 cells stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine inducing virus expression by acting mostly at a post-transcriptional level on the virus life cycle. Materials and Methods: Virus production in culture supernatants was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. GC receptor expression was tested by both binding of [3H]-Dexamethasone 21-mesylate and Northern blotting. Cell-associated HIV protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting, whereas both HIV and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) RNA accumulation were evaluated by Northern blotting. HIV transcription was tested by long terminal repeat (LTR) chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) assay after transient transfection of U1 or U937 cells. Formation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding complex in nuclear cell extracts was visualized by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), whereas ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosporylation was studied by Western blotting. Results: IL-6 and Dex synergistically induced HIV expression in U1 cells, and this effect was blocked by RU 486. No substantial HIV RNA accumulation was demonstrated in U1 cells co-stimulated with IL-6 and Dex, whereas IL-6 upregulated the expression of MCP-1 RNA, and this effect was inhibited by Dex. In contrast, Dex potentiated IL-6 induced activation of AP-1 and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation, as revealed by EMSA. HIV-1 LTR driven transcription was observed in U1 cells stimulated with TNF-α and this effect was potentiated by Dex. In sharp contrast, no induction of LTR-directed CAT activity was observed in transfected U1 cells (or in their parental uninfected U937 cells) stimulated with IL-6 and Dex either alone or in combination. Conclusions: High levels of virion production can be induced in latently infected cells by stimulation with IL-6 and Dex in the absence of activation of the HIV LTR or viral transcription in spite of activation of both ERK1/2 MAPK and AP-1. These findings suggest the existence of LTR-independent pathways influenced by cytokine and GC through which HIV can maintain substantial levels of protein expression and virion production.

AB - Background: Glucocorticoids (GC) such as dexamethasone (Dex) can directly upregulate human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication in acutely infected cells and potentiate HIV expression from chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We have here investigated the potential effect of Dex in U1 cells stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine inducing virus expression by acting mostly at a post-transcriptional level on the virus life cycle. Materials and Methods: Virus production in culture supernatants was evaluated by reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. GC receptor expression was tested by both binding of [3H]-Dexamethasone 21-mesylate and Northern blotting. Cell-associated HIV protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting, whereas both HIV and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) RNA accumulation were evaluated by Northern blotting. HIV transcription was tested by long terminal repeat (LTR) chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) assay after transient transfection of U1 or U937 cells. Formation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding complex in nuclear cell extracts was visualized by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), whereas ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosporylation was studied by Western blotting. Results: IL-6 and Dex synergistically induced HIV expression in U1 cells, and this effect was blocked by RU 486. No substantial HIV RNA accumulation was demonstrated in U1 cells co-stimulated with IL-6 and Dex, whereas IL-6 upregulated the expression of MCP-1 RNA, and this effect was inhibited by Dex. In contrast, Dex potentiated IL-6 induced activation of AP-1 and ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation, as revealed by EMSA. HIV-1 LTR driven transcription was observed in U1 cells stimulated with TNF-α and this effect was potentiated by Dex. In sharp contrast, no induction of LTR-directed CAT activity was observed in transfected U1 cells (or in their parental uninfected U937 cells) stimulated with IL-6 and Dex either alone or in combination. Conclusions: High levels of virion production can be induced in latently infected cells by stimulation with IL-6 and Dex in the absence of activation of the HIV LTR or viral transcription in spite of activation of both ERK1/2 MAPK and AP-1. These findings suggest the existence of LTR-independent pathways influenced by cytokine and GC through which HIV can maintain substantial levels of protein expression and virion production.

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