This study aimed to evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-1 inhibitors anakinra (ANA) and canakinumab (CAN) in the treatment of Behçet’s disease (BD)-related uveitis. Multicenter retrospective observational study includes 19 consecutive BD patients (31 affected eyes) received treatment with anti-IL-1 agents. Data were analyzed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is the reduction of ocular inflammatory flares (OIF). The secondary endpoints are improvement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA); reduction of macular thickness defined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and of vasculitis identified with fluorescein angiography (FA); evaluation of statistically significant differences between patients treated with IL-1 inhibitors as monotherapy, subjects also administered with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or corticosteroids as well as between patients administered with IL-1 inhibitors as first line biologic treatment and those previously treated with TNF-α inhibitors. At 12 months, OIF significantly decreased from 200 episodes/100 patients/year to 48.87 episodes/100 patients/year (p < 0.0001). The frequency of retinal vasculitis identified by FA significantly decreased between baseline and 3- and 12-month follow-up visits (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). OIF rate was significantly higher in patients co-administered with DMARDs (81.8 episodes/100 patients/year) than in patients undergoing IL-1 inhibitors as monotherapy (0.0 episodes/100 patients/year) (p = 0.03). No differences were identified on the basis of corticosteroid use and between patients administered with IL-1 inhibitors as first line biologic approach or second line. Steroid dosage was significantly decreased at 12-month visit compared to baseline (p = 0.02). Treatment with IL-1 inhibitors is effective in the management of BD-related uveitis and provides a long-term control of ocular inflammation in refractory and long-lasting cases.
- Behçet’s disease
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