In inflammatory skin conditions, such as psoriasis, vascular enlargement is associated with endothelial cell proliferation, release of cytokines and adhesion molecule expression. Interleukin (IL)-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by T helper-17 cells that is critically involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ are also inflammatory cytokines up-regulated in psoriasis and induced by various stimuli, including IL-17A. In this study, we found that human keratinocytes are the main source of IL-36, in particular of IL-36γ. This cytokine was strongly induced by IL-17A and, together with IL-17A, efficiently activated human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), which expressed both IL-17 and IL-36 receptors. Both IL-36γ and IL-17A induced cell proliferation through specific molecular cascades involving ERK1/2 only or ERK1/2, STAT3 and NF-κB, respectively. We highlighted the intense IL-17A- and IL-36γ -dependent interplay between keratinocytes and HDMECs, likely active in the psoriatic lesions and leading to the establishment of a cytokine network responsible for the development and maintenance of the inflamed state. IL-17A or IL-36γ showed in HDMECs a synergic activity with TNF-α by potently inducing inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release and ICAM-1 expression. We also investigated the involvement of IL-36γ and VEGF-A, substantially reduced in lesional skin of psoriatic patients pharmacologically treated with the anti-IL-17A antibody Secukinumab. Importantly, keratinocyte-derived IL-36γ represented an additional pro-angiogenic mediator of IL-17A. We observed that keratinocyte-derived VEGF-A influenced proliferation but did not act on expression of adhesion molecules in HDMECs. On the other hand, inhibition of IL-36γ released by IL-17Atreated keratinocytes impaired either proliferation or ICAM-1 expression both in HDMECs and in an in vivo murine model of psoriasis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that IL-17A and IL-36γ are highly involved in endothelial cells/keratinocytes crosstalk in inflammatory skin conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)