Primary pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) is a rare syndrome, characterized by digital clubbing, periostosis, and pachydermia. We have evaluated biochemical bone turnover markers, including components of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (OPG/RANKL) systems, in an 18-year-old man affected by primary PDP. The acute phase of the disease was characterized in our patient by high serum levels of IL-6 and RANKL. The observed high serum levels of these parameters are associated with increased values in markers of bone resorption (degradation products of C-terminal telopeptides of type-I collagen and urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio) and reduced serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone formation. Serum levels of osteotrophic hormones were in the normal range. Our data suggest that, despite the radiographic findings, the acute phase of primary PDP is characterized by increased bone resorption, probably mediated by IL-6 and RANKL.
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