International therapeutic guidelines for patients with HCV-related extrahepatic disorders. A multidisciplinary expert statement

Anna Linda Zignego, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Clodoveo Ferri, David Saadoun, Luca Arcaini, Dario Roccatello, Alessandro Antonelli, Anne Claire Desbois, Cloe Comarmond, Laura Gragnani, Milvia Casato, Peter Lamprecht, Alessandra Mangia, Athanasios G. Tzioufas, Zobair M. Younossi, Patrice Cacoub, on behalf of the ISG-EHCV

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is both hepatotrophic and lymphotropic virus that causes liver as well extrahepatic manifestations including cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, the most frequent and studied condition, lymphoma, and neurologic, cardiovascular, endocrine-metabolic or renal diseases. HCV-extrahepatic manifestations (HCV-EHMs) may severely affect the overall prognosis, while viral eradication significantly reduces non-liver related deaths. Different clinical manifestations may coexist in the same patient. Due to the variety of HCV clinical manifestations, a multidisciplinary approach along with appropriate therapeutic strategies are required. In the era of interferon-free anti-HCV treatments, international recommendations for the therapeutic management of HCV-EHMs are needed. This implies the need to define the best criteria to use antivirals and/or other therapeutic approaches. The present recommendations, based on qualified expert experience and specific literature, will focus on etiological (antiviral) therapies and/or traditional pathogenetic treatments that still maintain their therapeutic utility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-541
Number of pages19
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2017


  • Anti-HCV therapy
  • Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • Non-etiological therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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