Background: Despite recent technical advances, interventional cardiac catheterization is still challenging in neonatal age and no specific data concerning early outcome are so far published in literature. Methods: Neonatal trans-catheter cardiac interventions performed in high-volume Italian referral centers were retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcomes were procedural major adverse events, in-hospital mortality and procedural failure. Secondary outcomes were minor adverse events and need for blood transfusion. Results: From January 2000 to December 2017, 1423 newborns (mean weight 3.0 ± 0.6 kg, range 1.0–5.8; median age 2.0 days) underwent interventional cardiac catheterization. Overall, global procedure adverse event rate and in-hospital mortality were 10.2% and 5.2%, respectively. At multi-variable analysis, primary composite outcome was significantly related to low-weight (<2.5 kg) (p < 0.01) and younger age (≤7 days) (p < 0.01) at the procedure, prematurity (p < 0.01), uni-ventricular physiology (p < 0.01), associated genetic syndromes (p < 0.01) and procedure risk category (p < 0.01). No relationship between volume of activity of any single center and procedure outcome was found. Over time, a trend toward an increased number of procedures and their complexity was recorded. Trans-catheter management of cardiac malformations with critical, duct-dependent pulmonary blood flow by arterial duct stenting or right ventricular outflow tract stenting showed the highest increase. Conclusions: Interventional cardiac catheterization is relatively safe and feasible in neonatal age. Peri-natal age, low weight, uni-ventricular physiology and genetic syndromes still significantly contribute to procedural morbidity and in-hospital mortality of this approach.
- Interventional cardiac catheterization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine