The introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 1992 has dramatically changed the management of severe male infertility. In severe male infertility, live birth rates with ICSI are superior to those with other non-donor treatments. In non-male infertility, however, pregnancy rates are not better with ICSI than with in vitro fertilization (IVF). With obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, reasonable pregnancy rates are now possible with ICSI after recovery of sperm from the testes followed by ICSI. Genetic counselling is indicated for severe male infertility, whether or not ICSI is considered. ICSI is indicated in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to avoid contamination by extraneous DNA in the case of PCR-based testing and to increase the number of embryos available for testing. In turn, PGD may be indicated in pregnancies that are at high risk of aneuploidy because of genetic factors associated with azoospermia. As with IVF, not all couples succeed, but 2% of couples with failed ICSI cycles will conceive without treatment. ICSI outcome studies indicate that there is a significant increase in prematurity, low birthweight, and perinatal mortality associated with single and multiple births, similar to the outcomes of conventional IVF. However, as evidenced in long-term follow-up studies, the higher rates of urogenital abnormalities and increased use of healthcare may be associated with paternal characteristics.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
- Male infertility
- Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology
- Reproductive Medicine