Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several clinical conditions characterized by insulin-resistance and high cardiovascular risk. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the liver expression of the metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance can be a frequent comorbidity in several chronic liver diseases, in particular hepatitis C virus infection and/or cirrhosis. Several studies have demonstrated that insulin action is not only relevant for glucose control, but also for vascular homeostasis. Insulin regulates nitric oxide production, which mediates to a large degree the vasodilating, antiinflammatory and antithrombotic properties of a healthy endothelium, guaranteeing organ perfusion. The effects of insulin on the liver microvasculature and the effects of IR on sinusoidal endothelial cells have been studied in animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The hypotheses derived from these studies and the potential translation of these results into humans are critically discussed in this review.
- Endothelial dysfunction
- Insulin resistance
- Metabolic syndrome
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas