IOUS has become increasingly important for surgical resection in patients with cirrhosis and healthy liver. IOUS is important in the diagnosis and staging of liver cancer and as an element of the surgical technique, and IOUS can now be considered a fundamental tool for hepatobiliary and other surgical procedures . The American College of Surgeons has recently recognized the need for surgeons to have specific training in ultrasonography. Meanwhile, dedicated monographs on IOUS have been published in the United States, Chile, and Europe [39-42].
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