OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the approach of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with spot stenting (SS) for the treatment of long coronary lesions. BACKGROUND: Treating long coronary lesions with balloon angioplasty results in suboptimal short- and long-term outcomes. Full lesion coverage with traditional stenting (TS) has been associated with a high restenosis rate. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 130 long lesions (> 15 mm) in 101 patients treated with IVUS-guided PTCA and SS. The results were compared with those of TS in a matched group of patients. Coronary angioplasty was performed with a balloon to vessel ratio of 1:1, according to the IVUS media-to-media diameter of the vessel at the lesion site, to achieve prespecified IVUS criteria: lumen cross-sectional area (CSA) ≥5.5 mm2 or ≥50% of the vessel CSA at the lesion site. The stents were implanted only in the vessel segment where the criteria were not met. RESULTS In the SS group, stents were implanted in 67 of 130 lesions, and the mean stent length was shorter than that of lesions in the matched TS group (10.4 ± 13 mm vs. 32.4 ± 13 mm, p <0.005). The 30-day major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate was similar (5%) for both groups. Angiographic restenosis was 25% with IVUS-guided SS, as compared with 39% in the TS group (p <0.05). Follow-up MACE and target lesion revascularization rates were lower in the SS group than in the TS group (22% vs. 38% [p <0.05] and 19% vs. 34% [p <0.05], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Intravascular ultrasound-guided SS for the treatment of long coronary lesions is associated with good acute outcome. Angiographic restenosis and follow-up MACE rates were significantly lower than those with TS.
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