Intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (tirofiban) followed by intra-arterial urokinase and mechanical thrombolysis in stroke

Salvatore Mangiafico, Martino Cellerini, Patrizia Nencini, Gianfranco Gensini, Domenico Inzitari

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate preliminarily the efficacy and safety of intravenous tirofiban combined with intra-arterial pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis in patients with stroke. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with an acute ischemic stroke due to major cerebral arteries occlusion and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≥18 were treated with an intravenous bolus of tirofiban and heparin followed by intra-arterial administration of urokinase coupled with mechanical thrombolysis. RESULTS: Thirteen patients had an anterior circulation stroke (T-siphon internal carotid artery [ICA] = 7; middle cerebral artery [MCA] = 6), 6 patients a posterior circulation stroke, and 2 patients an anterior plus posterior circulation stroke (left ICA or MI tract of MCA plus basilar artery occlusions). Mean NIHSS score on admission was 21 (range. 18-27). Immediate recanalization was successful (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction [TIMI] 2-3) in 17 of 21 patients. The following day, 14 of 19 patients improved substantially and complete vessel patency (TIMI 3-4) was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. Intracranial bleeding occurred in 5 of 21 patients (3 symptomatic cerebral hemorrhages and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages) and was fatal in the case of 3 patients. At discharge, the mean NIHSS was 5.4 (range, 0-25). Overall, at 3-month follow-up the functional outcome was favorable (modified Rankin Scale score = 0-2) in 13 of 21 (62%) patients. Death (including all causes) at 90 days occurred in 6 of 21 (28%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of intravenous tirofiban with intra-arterial urokinase and mechanical thrombalysis may be successful in reestablishing vessel patency and result in a good functional outcome in patients with major cerebral arteries occlusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2595-2601
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Neuroradiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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