Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a relatively recent development in imaging. In 1997 the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) published guidelines for the clinical application of echocardiography. Routine intraoperative use of TEE has been shown to lead to an improvement in both surgical and anesthetic management, which presumably is translated into better and more consistent outcomes for patients. The use of TEE as a diagnostic tool in the echo lab, and as a diagnostic and monitoring tool during and after cardiac or other major operations, has increased significantly. In Europe, the problem of training and accreditation in perioperative TEE has been addressed, during the last decade, by the European Association of Echocardiography (EAE), which is a formal association of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiologists (EACTA).
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