Background: In patients with chronic heart failure, pulmonary hypertension is an important predictive marker of adverse outcome. Its invasive and non-invasive determinants have not been evaluated. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate hemodynamic determinants of pulmonary hypertension in chronic heart failure and to compare the predictive value of Doppler indices with that of invasively measured hemodynamic indices. Methods: Right heart catheterization and transthoracic echo-Doppler were simultaneously performed in 259 consecutive patients with chronic heart failure (ejection fraction 24% ± 7%) who were in sinus rhythm and receiving optimized medical therapy. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP), cardiac index, transpulmonary gradient pressure, and pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP) were measured invasively. Left atrial and ventricular systolic and diastolic volumes, the ratio of maximal early to late diastolic filling velocities (E/A ratio), deceleration time (DT) and atrial filling fraction (AFF) of transmitral flow, systolic fraction of forward pulmonary venous flow (SFpvf), and mitral regurgitation were quantified by echo-Doppler. Results: Patients with pulmonary hypertension had greater left atrial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, more left ventricular diastolic abnormalities, and greater hemodynamic impairment. The correlations between systolic left ventricular indices, mitral regurgitation, and sPAP were generally poor. Among invasive and non-invasive measurements, PWP (r = 0.89, p <0.0001) and SFpvf (r = -0.68, p <0.0001) showed the strongest correlation with sPAP. When we compared all patients with those without mitral regurgitation, the correlations between E/A ratio (r = 0.56 vs r = 0.74, p <0.002), SFpvf (r = -0.68 vs r = -0.84, p <0.03), and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were significantly stronger. Multivariate analysis revealed that PWP was the strongest invasive independent predictor of systolic pulmonary artery pressure in patients with (R2 = 0.87, p <0.0001) and without (R2 = 0.90, p <0.0001) mitral regurgitation. A PWP ≥ 18 mm Hg (odds ratio [95% CL], 142 (41-570) was strongly associated with systolic pulmonary hypertension. Among non-invasive variables DT, SFpvf, and AFF were identified as independent predictors of sPAP in patients with (R2 = 0.56, p <0.0001) and without (R2 = 0.78, p <0.0001) mitral regurgitation. A DT <130 (odds ratio [95% CL], 3.5 (1.3-8.5), SFfvp <40% (odds ratio [95% CL], 333 (41-1,007), and AFF <30% (odds ratio [95% CL], 2 (1.3-7) most strongly predicted systolic pulmonary hypertension.ConclusionsThe results of this study indicate that in patients with chronic heart failure, venous pulmonary congestion is an important determinant of systolic pulmonary artery hypertension. Hemodynamic and Doppler determinants showed similar predictive power in identifying systolic pulmonary artery hypertension. Copyright (C) 2000 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine