Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon species and Geotrichum capitatum in patients with hematological malignancies: A retrospective multicenter study from Italy and review of the literature

Corrado Girmenia, Livio Pagano, Bruno Martino, Domenico D'Antonio, Rosa Fanci, Giorgina Specchia, Lorella Melillo, Massimo Buelli, Giampaolo Pizzarelli, Mario Venditti, Pietro Martino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Trichosporonosis is an uncommon but frequently fatal mycosis in immunocompromised patients. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted to characterize cases of proven or probable invasive trichosporonosis diagnosed over the past 20 years in Italian patients with hematological diseases. Of the 52 cases identified, 17 were classified as Trichosporon sp. infections and 35 were attributed to Geotrichum capitatum. Acute myeloid leukemia accounted for 65.4% of the cases. The incidence rates of Trichosporon sp. and G. capitatum infections in acute leukemia patients were 0.4 and 0.5%, respectively. Overall, 76.9% of cases had positive blood cultures. Pulmonary involvement was documented in 26.9% of cases. Death was reported for 57.1% of G. capitatum infections and for 64.7% of Trichosporon sp. infections. A literature review on trichosporonosis in patients with any underlying disease or condition reveals G. capitatum as a predominantly European pathogen, particularly in certain Mediterranean areas, while Trichosporon sp. infections are seen with similar frequencies on all continents. The majority of published Trichosporon sp. and G. capitatum infections occurred in patients with hematological diseases (62.8 and 91.7%, respectively). Well over half of these were suffering from acute leukemia (68 and 84% of patients with Trichosporon sp. and G. capitatum infections, respectively). Crude mortality rates were 77% for Trichosporon spp. and 55.7% for G. capitatum. The optimal therapy for trichosporonosis has yet to be identified; however, in vitro experiences are providing encouraging evidence of the potential role of the new triazoles, in particular, voriconazole.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1818-1828
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Volume43
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology

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