Invasive mucormycosis in children with cancer: A retrospective study from the Infection Working Group of Italian Pediatric Hematology Oncology Association

Paola Muggeo, Elisabetta Calore, Nunzia Decembrino, Stefano Frenos, Francesco De Leonardis, Antonella Colombini, Fara Petruzziello, Katia Perruccio, Massimo Berger, Roberta Burnelli, Giulio A. Zanazzo, Nicola Santoro, Simone Cesaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Invasive mucormycosis is a rare but frequently fatal fungal disease. The acute and rapidly progressive evolution causes unfavourable outcome in 22%-59% of patients and its treatment represents a clinical challenge, especially in immunocompromised patients. Current data in paediatric oncological patients are limited. Objectives: The infection Working Group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) analysed the episodes of invasive mucormycosis occurred between 2009 and 2016. Patients: Fifteen cases of proven mucormycosis (male/female 8/7; median age 14.1 years, range 7.7-18.6) were reported after chemotherapy for acute leukaemia and lymphoma (12) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (3). The aetiology was Rhizopus oryzae 4, Lichtheimia corymbifera 3 and Mucor spp. 8. Results: Paranasal sinus was the primary site of infection in 14/15 patients combined with orbital involvement (9), central nervous system (8), lung (4), thyroid gland and kidney (1). All patients received liposomal Amphotericin B (L-AmB) (3-10 mg/kg), with surgical debridement in 14/15 cases. Eleven patients received maintenance treatment with posaconazole (9) or isavuconazole (2). Eight out of fifteen patients (53.3%) died, after 3-6 months. Conclusions: Mucormycosis involved mainly the sinu-orbital site and affected children >10 years. Despite aggressive treatment with high-dose L-AmB and timely surgical debridement, the mortality rate remains still high.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMycoses
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • cancer
  • children
  • mucormycosis
  • mycoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Infectious Diseases

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