Background: Invasive mucormycosis is a rare but frequently fatal fungal disease. The acute and rapidly progressive evolution causes unfavourable outcome in 22%-59% of patients and its treatment represents a clinical challenge, especially in immunocompromised patients. Current data in paediatric oncological patients are limited. Objectives: The infection Working Group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) analysed the episodes of invasive mucormycosis occurred between 2009 and 2016. Patients: Fifteen cases of proven mucormycosis (male/female 8/7; median age 14.1 years, range 7.7-18.6) were reported after chemotherapy for acute leukaemia and lymphoma (12) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (3). The aetiology was Rhizopus oryzae 4, Lichtheimia corymbifera 3 and Mucor spp. 8. Results: Paranasal sinus was the primary site of infection in 14/15 patients combined with orbital involvement (9), central nervous system (8), lung (4), thyroid gland and kidney (1). All patients received liposomal Amphotericin B (L-AmB) (3-10 mg/kg), with surgical debridement in 14/15 cases. Eleven patients received maintenance treatment with posaconazole (9) or isavuconazole (2). Eight out of fifteen patients (53.3%) died, after 3-6 months. Conclusions: Mucormycosis involved mainly the sinu-orbital site and affected children >10 years. Despite aggressive treatment with high-dose L-AmB and timely surgical debridement, the mortality rate remains still high.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases