Invasive mycoses represent a rare but severe complication following hemopoietic SCT (HSCT) in children. Their incidence is related to the type of donor, being higher after allogeneic transplant, especially from alternative donors. Moreover, the incidence of invasive mycoses varies in the different post transplant phases. Neutropenia, lymphopenia, GvHD, high-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs represent well-known risk factors. The clinical features of invasive mycoses after HSCT in children are similar to those observed in adults, and the diagnostic tools, including Aspergillus galactomannan antigen detection, are feasible also in pediatrics. Mortality due to invasive mycoses after HSCT in children is high.
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