INVEST revisited: Review of findings from the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study

Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff, Eileen M. Handberg, Giuseppe Mancia, Qian Zhou, Annette Champion, Udo F. Legler, Carl J. Pepine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study (INVEST), a randomized trial of 22,576 predominantly elderly patients with an average 2.7-year follow-up, compared a calcium antagonist-led strategy (verapamil SR plus trandolapril) with a β-blocker-led strategy (atenolol plus hydrochlorothiazide) for hypertension treatment and prevention of cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery disease patients. Patients received individualized dose and drug titration following a flexible, multi-drug, guideline-based treatment algorithm, with the objective of achieving optimal blood pressure (BP) control individualized for comorbidities (e.g., diabetes). The primary outcome (PO) was first occurrence of death (all-cause), nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal stroke. The strategies resulted in significant and very similar BP reduction, with approximately 70% of patients in both strategies achieving BP control (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1340
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009



  • Atenolol
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Hypertension
  • New-onset diabetes
  • Trandolapril
  • Verapamil SR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Cooper-DeHoff, R. M., Handberg, E. M., Mancia, G., Zhou, Q., Champion, A., Legler, U. F., & Pepine, C. J. (2009). INVEST revisited: Review of findings from the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 7(11), 1329-1340.