Involvement of the IgE-basophil system and mild complement activation in haemophilia B with anti-factor IX neutralizing antibodies and anaphylaxis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction: Patients with haemophilia B who develop factor IX (FIX) neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) after FIX infusion are at high risk of hypersensitivity reactions upon FIX re-exposure, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Aim: To investigate biomechanisms of FIX hypersensitivity. Methods: A cellular antigen stimulation test (CAST) was employed to evaluate leukotriene C4 (LTC4) release from basophils stimulated by FIX in three treated children with haemophilia B, one of whom developed FIX inhibitor and experienced anaphylaxis following FIX re-exposure. Anti-FIX IgE and IgG antibodies and markers of complement activation (C5b9, C3d and iC3b) were measured in plasma, the last also after FIX infusion. Ten healthy children served as controls. Results: The patient who developed anti-FIX inhibitors and anaphylaxis had a nonsense mutation in FIX gene (p.Arg298Stop) and, compared to controls, had higher plasma levels of specific anti-FIX IgE (2.285 vs 0.084 OD492 nm), with marked LTC4 release from his FIX-stimulated basophils (519.8 vs 39.9 pg/mL). Further, he had higher plasma levels of anti-FIX IgG of all the four subclasses (total IgG 1.180 vs 0.120 OD492 nm) with FIX neutralizing activity (1.5 BU); mild complement activation occurred during FIX-induced anaphylaxis (C5b9 increased from 258.5 to 351.1 ng/mL). The same parameters were normal in the two patients who tolerated FIX infusion. Conclusion: In the patient with haemophilia B who experienced anaphylaxis after FIX, but not in the patients with haemophilia B who tolerated FIX, the CAST assay showed FIX-induced LTC4 release, which was associated with high plasma levels of specific anti-FIX IgE and IgG antibodies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e348-e353
JournalHaemophilia
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2017

Keywords

  • anaphylaxis
  • complement
  • factor IX
  • haemophilia B
  • immunoglobulin E
  • leukotrienes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Genetics(clinical)

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