Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates

Emanuela Medda, Ferruccio Santini, Simona De Angelis, Fabrizio Franzellin, Carla Fiumalbi, Andrea Perico, Enzo Gilardi, Maria Teresa Mechi, Alessandro Marsili, Angela Citroni, Adaniele Leandri, Alberto Mantovani, Paolo Vitti, Antonella Olivieri

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Abstract

Introduction Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-159
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume154
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

nutritional status
iodine
Nutritional Status
Iodine
Thyroid Gland
Agriculture
serum
agriculture
Fungicides
exposure
effect
occupational exposure
Biomarkers
Occupational Exposure
fungicide
Metabolites
Serum
excretion
Italy
biomarker

Keywords

  • Ethylenthiourea
  • Exposure
  • Iodine
  • Mancozeb
  • Thyroid disruptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Medda, E., Santini, F., De Angelis, S., Franzellin, F., Fiumalbi, C., Perico, A., ... Olivieri, A. (2017). Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates. Environmental Research, 154, 152-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.12.019

Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates. / Medda, Emanuela; Santini, Ferruccio; De Angelis, Simona; Franzellin, Fabrizio; Fiumalbi, Carla; Perico, Andrea; Gilardi, Enzo; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Marsili, Alessandro; Citroni, Angela; Leandri, Adaniele; Mantovani, Alberto; Vitti, Paolo; Olivieri, Antonella.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 154, 01.01.2017, p. 152-159.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Medda, E, Santini, F, De Angelis, S, Franzellin, F, Fiumalbi, C, Perico, A, Gilardi, E, Mechi, MT, Marsili, A, Citroni, A, Leandri, A, Mantovani, A, Vitti, P & Olivieri, A 2017, 'Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates', Environmental Research, vol. 154, pp. 152-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.12.019
Medda, Emanuela ; Santini, Ferruccio ; De Angelis, Simona ; Franzellin, Fabrizio ; Fiumalbi, Carla ; Perico, Andrea ; Gilardi, Enzo ; Mechi, Maria Teresa ; Marsili, Alessandro ; Citroni, Angela ; Leandri, Adaniele ; Mantovani, Alberto ; Vitti, Paolo ; Olivieri, Antonella. / Iodine nutritional status and thyroid effects of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates. In: Environmental Research. 2017 ; Vol. 154. pp. 152-159.
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abstract = "Introduction Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program.",
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AU - Medda, Emanuela

AU - Santini, Ferruccio

AU - De Angelis, Simona

AU - Franzellin, Fabrizio

AU - Fiumalbi, Carla

AU - Perico, Andrea

AU - Gilardi, Enzo

AU - Mechi, Maria Teresa

AU - Marsili, Alessandro

AU - Citroni, Angela

AU - Leandri, Adaniele

AU - Mantovani, Alberto

AU - Vitti, Paolo

AU - Olivieri, Antonella

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N2 - Introduction Italy is still characterized by a mild iodine deficiency and is among the most intensive users of chemical products for agriculture in Europe. The aim of this study was i) to evaluate thyroid effects of exposure to mancozeb, a fungicide widely used in agriculture, in a sample of Italian grapevine workers, and ii) to verify whether the iodine intake may modulate the risk of thyroid disruption due to the mancozeb metabolite ethylenthiourea (ETU). Methods One hundred seventy-seven occupationally exposed male workers (29 from Chianti, a mild iodine deficient area, and 148 from Bolzano an iodine sufficient province) and 74 non-occupationally exposed male controls (34 from Chianti and 40 from Bolzano) were enrolled in the study. Serum biomarkers of thyroid function, as well as urinary iodine and ETU concentrations were assessed. Moreover all the recruited subjects underwent clinical examination and thyroid ultrasound. Results Multivariate comparisons showed lower mean serum levels of FT4 in Chianti-workers as compared to Bolzano-workers. Moreover, an increased urinary iodine excretion (>250 µg/L) was more frequently found among more exposed workers (ETU>20 µg/L) than among less exposed ones and this effect was more pronounced in Chianti- than in Bolzano-workers. Chianti-workers also showed a significantly higher frequency of very low thyroid volume (≤6.0 ml) as compared to controls. Conclusions These findings showed a mild thyroid disrupting effect due to occupational exposure to mancozeb, more pronounced in workers residing in an area characterized by a mild to moderate iodine deficiency as compared to workers residing in an area covered by a long-lasting iodine prophylaxis program.

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