Iron-dependent regulation of MDM2 influences p53 activity and hepatic carcinogenesis

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Abstract

Iron overload is a risk factor for hepatocarcinoma, but the pathways involved are poorly characterized. Gene expression analysis in immortalized mouse hepatocytes exposed to iron or the iron chelator deferoxamine revealed that iron downregulated, whereas deferoxamine upregulated, mRNA levels of mouse double minute gene 2 (MDM2), the ubiquitin ligase involved in the degradation of the oncosuppressor p53. Regulation of MDM2 by iron status was observed at protein levels in mouse hepatocytes and rat liver, and was associated with specular changes in p53 expression. Iron dependent regulation of MDM2/ p53 was confirmed ex-vivo in human monocytes, by manipulation of iron pool and in a genetic model of iron deficiency, leading to modulation of p53 target genes involved in the antioxidant response and apoptosis. Iron status influenced p53 ubiquitination and degradation rate, and the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin increased p53 levels in iron-depleted cells. Furthermore, nutlin enhanced the antiproliferative activity of deferoxamine in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells. The MDM2 -309T > G promoter polymorphism, determining increased MDM2 and lower p53 activity, was associated with higher risk of hepatocarcinoma in cirrhotic patients with hemochromatosis, and with HFE mutations in patients with hepatocarcinoma without hemochromatosis, suggesting an interaction between MDM2 and iron in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinoma. In conclusion, iron status influences p53 activity and antioxidant response by modulating MDM2 expression. MDM2 inhibitors may enhance the antiproliferative activity of iron chelators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1006-1017
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Volume176
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010

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Carcinogenesis
Iron
Liver
Genes
Deferoxamine
Hemochromatosis
p53 Genes
Chelating Agents
Hepatocytes
Antioxidants
Hepatoblastoma
Gene Expression
Iron Overload
Ubiquitination
Genetic Models
Hep G2 Cells
Ligases
Ubiquitin
Monocytes
Down-Regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Iron-dependent regulation of MDM2 influences p53 activity and hepatic carcinogenesis",
abstract = "Iron overload is a risk factor for hepatocarcinoma, but the pathways involved are poorly characterized. Gene expression analysis in immortalized mouse hepatocytes exposed to iron or the iron chelator deferoxamine revealed that iron downregulated, whereas deferoxamine upregulated, mRNA levels of mouse double minute gene 2 (MDM2), the ubiquitin ligase involved in the degradation of the oncosuppressor p53. Regulation of MDM2 by iron status was observed at protein levels in mouse hepatocytes and rat liver, and was associated with specular changes in p53 expression. Iron dependent regulation of MDM2/ p53 was confirmed ex-vivo in human monocytes, by manipulation of iron pool and in a genetic model of iron deficiency, leading to modulation of p53 target genes involved in the antioxidant response and apoptosis. Iron status influenced p53 ubiquitination and degradation rate, and the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin increased p53 levels in iron-depleted cells. Furthermore, nutlin enhanced the antiproliferative activity of deferoxamine in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells. The MDM2 -309T > G promoter polymorphism, determining increased MDM2 and lower p53 activity, was associated with higher risk of hepatocarcinoma in cirrhotic patients with hemochromatosis, and with HFE mutations in patients with hepatocarcinoma without hemochromatosis, suggesting an interaction between MDM2 and iron in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinoma. In conclusion, iron status influences p53 activity and antioxidant response by modulating MDM2 expression. MDM2 inhibitors may enhance the antiproliferative activity of iron chelators.",
author = "Paola Dongiovanni and Fracanzani, {Anna Ludovica} and Gaetano Cairo and Megazzini, {Chiara Paola} and Stefano Gatti and Raffaela Rametta and Silvia Fargion and Luca Valenti",
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T1 - Iron-dependent regulation of MDM2 influences p53 activity and hepatic carcinogenesis

AU - Dongiovanni, Paola

AU - Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica

AU - Cairo, Gaetano

AU - Megazzini, Chiara Paola

AU - Gatti, Stefano

AU - Rametta, Raffaela

AU - Fargion, Silvia

AU - Valenti, Luca

PY - 2010/2

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N2 - Iron overload is a risk factor for hepatocarcinoma, but the pathways involved are poorly characterized. Gene expression analysis in immortalized mouse hepatocytes exposed to iron or the iron chelator deferoxamine revealed that iron downregulated, whereas deferoxamine upregulated, mRNA levels of mouse double minute gene 2 (MDM2), the ubiquitin ligase involved in the degradation of the oncosuppressor p53. Regulation of MDM2 by iron status was observed at protein levels in mouse hepatocytes and rat liver, and was associated with specular changes in p53 expression. Iron dependent regulation of MDM2/ p53 was confirmed ex-vivo in human monocytes, by manipulation of iron pool and in a genetic model of iron deficiency, leading to modulation of p53 target genes involved in the antioxidant response and apoptosis. Iron status influenced p53 ubiquitination and degradation rate, and the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin increased p53 levels in iron-depleted cells. Furthermore, nutlin enhanced the antiproliferative activity of deferoxamine in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells. The MDM2 -309T > G promoter polymorphism, determining increased MDM2 and lower p53 activity, was associated with higher risk of hepatocarcinoma in cirrhotic patients with hemochromatosis, and with HFE mutations in patients with hepatocarcinoma without hemochromatosis, suggesting an interaction between MDM2 and iron in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinoma. In conclusion, iron status influences p53 activity and antioxidant response by modulating MDM2 expression. MDM2 inhibitors may enhance the antiproliferative activity of iron chelators.

AB - Iron overload is a risk factor for hepatocarcinoma, but the pathways involved are poorly characterized. Gene expression analysis in immortalized mouse hepatocytes exposed to iron or the iron chelator deferoxamine revealed that iron downregulated, whereas deferoxamine upregulated, mRNA levels of mouse double minute gene 2 (MDM2), the ubiquitin ligase involved in the degradation of the oncosuppressor p53. Regulation of MDM2 by iron status was observed at protein levels in mouse hepatocytes and rat liver, and was associated with specular changes in p53 expression. Iron dependent regulation of MDM2/ p53 was confirmed ex-vivo in human monocytes, by manipulation of iron pool and in a genetic model of iron deficiency, leading to modulation of p53 target genes involved in the antioxidant response and apoptosis. Iron status influenced p53 ubiquitination and degradation rate, and the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin increased p53 levels in iron-depleted cells. Furthermore, nutlin enhanced the antiproliferative activity of deferoxamine in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells. The MDM2 -309T > G promoter polymorphism, determining increased MDM2 and lower p53 activity, was associated with higher risk of hepatocarcinoma in cirrhotic patients with hemochromatosis, and with HFE mutations in patients with hepatocarcinoma without hemochromatosis, suggesting an interaction between MDM2 and iron in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinoma. In conclusion, iron status influences p53 activity and antioxidant response by modulating MDM2 expression. MDM2 inhibitors may enhance the antiproliferative activity of iron chelators.

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