PURPOSE: A previous case-control histomorphometric study showed higher odds of osteomalacia in patients with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia and may therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of BRONJ. The present case-control study aimed at testing such hypothesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: BRONJ+ and BRONJ- patients treated with bisphosphonates were matched by sex (same) and age (within 5 years). Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D), parathyroid hormone, bone alkaline phosphatase, total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1 and sclerostin were measured.
RESULTS: The main outcome was vitamin D deficiency defined as 25-OH-D < 50 nmol/l. A total of 51 BRONJ+ and 73 BRONJ- patients were studied. The frequency (95% CI) of vitamin D deficiency was 59% (45%-72%) in BRONJ+ and 62% (48%-75%) in BRONJ- patients. This amounts to a difference of -3% (-22%-16%, p = 0.77) for BRONJ+ patients. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and parathyroid hormone were similar in BRONJ+ and BRONJ- patients. Among the bone metabolism markers, only sclerostin differed between the two groups, being higher in BRONJ+ patients.
CONCLUSION: The present matched case-control study suggests that vitamin D deficiency is not a risk factor for BRONJ.
- Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
- Bone Density Conservation Agents/adverse effects
- Case-Control Studies
- Risk Factors
- Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy