It has recently been shown that ischemia in collateral-dependent myocardium may develop at a very variable threshold in anginal patients; accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess whether nifedipine and diltiazem can increase blood flow to collateralized myocardium in man. Nine patients with complete coronary occlusion filled by collaterals, with no other coronary stenosis, normal left ventricular function, and reproducibly positive exercise tests were studied. They underwent exercise tests off therapy and after acute randomized administration of nifedipine (10 mg sublingually), diltiazem (120 mg orally), and nitroglycerin (0.5 mg sublingually), the latter a drug known to increase blood flow to collateralized myocardium. Following nifedipine, time to 1 mm ST segment depression increased significantly (from 430 ± 176 to 576 ± 205 seconds, p <0.01), while heart rate and rate-pressure product remained unchanged (115 ± 16 vs 121 ± 17 beats/min and 199 ± 29 vs 204 ± 44 beats/min · mm Hg · 102, respectively, pNS for both). Similarly, diltiazem significantly increased time to ischemic threshold from baseline to 638 ± 125 seconds (p <0.01), but did not change heart rate and rate-pressure product at 1 mm ST segment depression. Submaximal rate-pressure products were significantly lowered by both nifedipine and diltiazem. Nitroglycerin not only significantly improved time to ischemic threshold (from baseline to 666 ± 76 seconds, p <0.01), but also increased heart rate (from baseline to 137 ± 16 beats/min, p <0.01) and rate-pressure product (from baseline to 242 ± 48 beats/min · mm Hg · 102, p <0.05); submaximal rate pressure products were unchanged after nitroglycerin. Thus it is concluded that in patients with chronic coronary occlusion and collateral circulation, nifedipine and diltiazem increase exercise duration; this effect is achieved through a reduction of myocardial oxygen consumption rather than by increasing blood flow to collateral-dependent myocardium.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine