BACKGROUND: Uterine sarcomas are very rare tumours with different histotypes, molecular features and clinical outcomes; therefore, it is difficult to carry out prospective clinical trials, and this often results in heterogeneous management of patients in the clinical practice.
AIM: We planned to set up an Italian consensus conference on these diseases in order to provide recommendations on treatments and quality of care in our country.
RESULTS: Early-stage uterine sarcomas are managed by hysterectomy + bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy according to menopausal status and histology; lymphadenectomy is not indicated in patients without bulky nodes, and morcellation must be avoided. The postoperative management is represented by observation, even though chemotherapy can be considered in some high-risk patients. In early-stage low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and adenosarcomas without sarcomatous overgrowth, hormonal adjuvant treatment can be offered based on hormone receptor expression. In selected cases, external beam radiotherapy ± brachytherapy can be considered to increase local control only. Patients with advanced disease involving the abdomen can be offered primary chemotherapy (or hormonal therapy in the case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and adenosarcoma without sarcomatous overgrowth), even if potentially resectable in the absence of residual disease in order to test the chemosensitivity (or hormonosensitivity); debulking surgery can be considered in patients with clinical and radiological response. Chemotherapy is based on anthracyclines ± ifosfamide or dacarbazine. Palliative radiotherapy can be offered for symptom control, and stereotactic radiotherapy can be used for up to five isolated metastatic lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of uterine sarcoma should be centralised at referral centres and managed in a multidisciplinary setting.