INTRODUCTION: On the 27th of October 2017 the National Center for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Health Institute (NHI), clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù", Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis renewed the agreement about FC data flow for a 3 years period. The possibility to access data by third parties is among the most important new introduced within the agreement.
OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present report is to improve the know-how on cystic fibrosis (CF) through a better characterization of Italian patients. Furthermore, the present Report aims at improving the care of CF patient. In particular, the Report should contribute to the following objectives: * to analize medium- and long-term clinical and epidemiological trends of the disesase; * to identify the main health care needs at regional and national level in order to contribute to the healthcare programmes and to the distribution of resources; * to compare Italian data with international ones.
DESIGN: Analyses and results described in the present Report are referred to patients in charge to the Italian National Referral and Support Centers for Cystic Fibrosis in the period 2015-2016. Data were sent by Centres by means of a specific software (Camilla, Ibis Informatica). Data underwent to a double quality control (QC): the first by NHI and the second at a European level (before the inclusion of the italian data within the European Cystic Fibrosis Registry). These QCs assure the completeness and the accuracy of data as well as their consistency with European core data. Finally, in 2017, an additional CQ was performed to further reduce the number of missing data and consequently improve the precision and the consistency in the nomenclature adopted for genetic mutations.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 different CF Centres (referral, support, and Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù") sent their data referred to 2015-2016 years to ICFR . Data regarding Sardinia (Southern Italy) are missing and those from Treviso (Veneto Region, Northern Italy) and Rovereto (Trentino-Alto Adige Region, Northern Italy) are sent through Verona CF Centre.
RESULTS: The present Report has been organized into 10 sections. 1. Demography: estimated CF patients is 5,204 in 2015 and 5,362 in 2016; median age is 20.6 and 21.0, respectively. Prevalence is 8.6/100,000 residents in Italy in 2015 and 8.8 in 2016. Male percentage is 51.6% on average for 2015 and 2016; CF distribution showed higher frequency in patients aged from 7 to 35 years. The mean of patients aged more than 18 years is 56.5% on average in 2015 and 2016. 2. Diagnoses: most of the CF patients were diagnosed before 2 years of age (median value: 68%); a significant percentage of patients (median value: 13%) was diagnosed in adult age. 3. New diagnoses: new diagnoses were 169 in 2015 and 153 in 2016. Estimated incidence in 2015 was 1/4,176 living births in 2015 and 1/5,510 in 2016. 4. Genetics: 99.5% of patients underwent genetic analyses and in 96% of patients a mutation in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene was identified. [delta]508F was the most frequent mutation (44,7% in 2016). Furthermore, 16.0% and 3.4% of patients was characterized by the presence of at least one "residual function" mutation and gating, respectively. Finally, 21% of patients was a stop codons (class 1 mutation) carrier. 5. Lung function: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second) scores progressively decreased before adult age, in accordance with the natural history of the disease. FEV1% values in patients between 6 and 17 years of age is ≥70%; patients with a FEV1% value of 40% are less than 2% in the period 2015-2016. 6. Nutrition: most critical periods are during the first 6 months of life and during adolescence. Prevalence of malnourished male aged 12-17 years is constant in 2015-2016 and is always more than the prevalence observed in female. An increasing percentage of female patient with a suboptimal BMI value (35.5%) is observed among patients aged more than 18 years 7.
COMPLICATIONS: it was estimated that, in 2016, hepatopathies without cirrhosis (17.7%) is the principal complications in patients aged less than 18 years; in patients aged more than 18 years the principal complication was due to hepatopathies without cirrhosis (29.5%) and diabetes (23.3%). 8. Transplantation: in 2015-2016, 74 patients were bipulmunary transplanted; age was comprised between 8 and 52 years, median age at transplantation was 29,6 years. Median waiting times for transplantation is estimated in 17 months (24 months in 2015 and 14 months in 2016). 9. Microbiology: analyses were referred to test performed in 2016. Percentage of adult patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is 52.1% compared to 15.2% of paediatric patients; Staphylococcus aureus infection is present in 53.2% of adult patients and 52.8% of paediatric ones; Burkholderia Cepacia complex is present almost exclusively in adult patients (4.3%); Nontuberculous mycobacteria is present in 1.2% and 0.4% of adult and paediatric patients, respectively; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is present in the 6.1% of adult patients and 4.9 of paediatric patients. 10. Mortality: 102 patients (49 males and 53 females; median age 36.9 years in 2015 and 36.5 in 2016) died in 2015-2016 (transplanted patients are not included).
CONCLUSIONS: The present Report shows that Italian CF population is growing (median age) and paediatric mortality is decreasing. A very low percentage of paediatric population is characterized by complication of pulmonary function; adult patients are characterized by an increase of age at death (more than 36 years of age in 2016).