Italian guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection

M. De Martino, P. A. Tovo, C. Giaquinto, A. De Rossi, L. Galli, C. Gabiano, M. Floridia, G. Ferraris, E. Ruga, G. Castelli Gattinara, C. Scolfaro, A. Vierucci, A. Viganò, G. V. Zuccotti, C. Fundarò, D. Caselli, A. De Maria, M. Duse, A. Plebani, C. TimpanoM. Lanari, M. Stegagno, R. Lipreri, C. Gotta, M. Ruggeri, D. Loriano, P. Osimani, M. Cellini, G. L. Forni, G. Benaglia, A. Antonellini, D. De Mattia, C. Pintor, A. Mazza, A. Romano, R. Consolini, C. Pignata, M. G. Marazzi, A. Guarino, M. T. Cecchi, P. Zizzadoro, L. Battisti, T. Bezzi, C. Salvatore, M. Ciccia, S. Bionda, A. M. Metri, E. Anastasio, C. Magnani, M. Sticca, L. Tarallo, M. Masi, G. Gambaretto, S. Catania, E. Micheletti, A. Pellegatta, C. Dessi, F. Baldi, P. Ibba, E. Bresciani, C. Nasi, P. Falconieri, L. Tasso, R. Altobelli, P. G. Chiriacò, C. Ruggeri, L. A. Magni, U. Tondo, I. Contardi, D. Tommasi, F. Di Gregorio, A. Meo, F. Resta, M. Molesini, G. Sabatino, V. Portelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection and its treatment are peculiar in children. Adherence and compliance must be carefully taken into account before initiating or changing therapy and in the choice of drugs. Even in the absence of paediatric-specific trial results and notwithstanding drug-labelling notations, all antiretroviral drugs should be used when indicated. A combined therapy is compulsory. Therapy is highly recommended in category C or category 3 and recommended in category B children. Indications in categories N1, N2, A1 or A2 are limited. A triple association is recommended in category C or category 3 children or in those with a high viral load, when compliance is guaranteed. A step-down strategy is not advisable. Infants' treatment should be inserted into controlled studies. Therapy should be changed when serious side effects or poor tolerance (choose drugs with a different toxicity and greater tolerance), poor compliance (individualize the motives) or treatment failure (evaluate progression and adherence) occurs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)228-232
Number of pages5
JournalActa Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1999


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Guidelines
  • HIV-1
  • Perinatal infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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