Italian norms for the Freedman version of the Clock Drawing Test

Paolo Caffarra, Simona Gardini, Fabrizio Zonato, Letizia Concari, Francesca Dieci, Sandra Copelli, Morris Freedman, Andrea Stracciari, Annalena Venneri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a valid screening tool for the evaluation of cognitive decline. This study aimed to compute standardized norms for the Freedman version of the CDT in a population of 248 healthy Italian individuals aged from 20 to 89 years. Method: The effects of age, education, and gender on performance were assessed. Three conditions were administered: free-drawn clock (FD), which required participants to draw the contour, numbers, hands, and center of the clock; predrawn clock (PD), in which numbers, hands, and center had to be included in a predrawn contour; examiner-drawn clock (ED), in which only hands and center had to be inserted in a template including a predrawn contour and numbers. Scores for each of the single conditions and a total score were calculated. Results: Age had no effect on the FD condition, whereas a significant effect of age was found for the PD and ED conditions and the total score. Gender and education had no influence on any of the scores. Correction grids, cutoffs, and equivalent scores were computed. Conclusion: Standardized norms for the Freedman version of the CDT were collected in a large sample of healthy individuals.No adjustments were required for scores on the free-drawn condition, whereas raw scores on the predrawn and examiner-drawn conditions and the total score needed adjustments to account for age effects. The availability of standardized norms for this version of the CDT could increase the use of this comprehensive tool in the detection of dementia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)982-988
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Clock Drawing Test
  • Cognitive screening
  • Dementia
  • Neuropsychology
  • Normative values

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Psychology


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